Free 121 cam
Stan Lebar, the Program Manager for the Apollo Lunar TV Camera, headed the team at Westinghouse that developed the camera that brought pictures from the Moon's surface.The camera had to be designed to survive extreme temperature differences on the lunar surface, ranging from 121 °C (250 °F) in daylight to −157 °C (−251 °F) in the shade.Starting with the Apollo 15 mission, a more robust, damage-resistant camera was used on the lunar surface.All of these cameras required signal processing back on Earth to make the frame rate and color encoding compatible with analog broadcast television standards.It was from the MESA where it captured humanity's first step on another celestial body on 21 July 1969.
One signal branch was sent unprocessed to a fourteen-track analog data tape recorder where it was recorded onto fourteen-inch diameter reels of one-inch-wide analog magnetic data tapes at The conversion process started when the signal was sent to the RCA converter's high-quality 10-inch video monitor where a conventional RCA TK-22 television camera — using the NTSC broadcast standard of 525 scanned lines interlaced at 30 fps — merely re-photographed its screen.
The Color Camera ran at the North American standard 30 fps.
The cameras all used image pickup tubes that were initially fragile, as one was irreparably damaged during the live broadcast of the Apollo 12 mission's first moonwalk.
the television standard used in North America at the time, a real-time scan conversion was needed to be able to show its images on a regular TV set.
NASA selected a scan converter manufactured by RCA to convert the black-and-white SSTV signals from the Apollo 7, 8, 9 and 11 missions.